Last updated on: 12/4/2018 10:32:35 AM PST
Should tablets replace textbooks in K-12 schools?
Kajeet, an educational tech company, in a Mar. 7, 2018 post for the Kajeet Extracurricular blog titled "Traditional vs. Digital: The Changing Educational Content Landscape," available from kajeet.net, wrote:
"As the Internet increasingly takes over different facets of life, it stands to reason that traditional educational methods are in line for a shake-up. Printed textbook information is static, the books are heavy, they're costly, and they quickly become outdated. Seeing this, textbook manufacturers have moved to producing digital textbooks packed with interactive features, lightweight (or the weight of a student's mobile device), lower cost, and easily updated with the latest and greatest information...
One positive of digital textbooks is undoubtedly their price tag. Digital textbooks eliminate the cost of replacing print textbooks every few years, since new content can be uploaded anytime. Additionally, schools can give students access to open-source educational resources-wells of information free for anyone to use.
Possibly the most impactful effects digital textbooks have had are on learning itself. Print textbooks have immutable information, small margins, and lack engaging characteristics. Some newly developed digital counterparts, however, such as Apple's iPad textbooks, encourage a personalized learning experience... They invite students to create learning environments that, though standardized on one level, are, on another, uniquely theirs."
Mar. 7, 2018 - Kajeet
Amy Brown, MEd, K-12 Education Strategist at CDW·G, in a May 3, 2016 article for EdTech Magazine online edition titled "Digital Content Drives Learning, So Long as Schools Are Prepared," wrote:
"There's no mystery behind the rise of digital textbooks. I've heard educators heap praise on the interactive, multimedia content for its ability to engage students in new and interesting ways...
Digital content also surpasses traditional textbooks by providing students with anytime, anywhere access to course material. Additionally, reading e-books lets students practice screen-specific learning and comprehension skills that will become increasingly important as society shifts even further toward digital texts, both in the classroom and in the world beyond."
May 3, 2016 - Amy Brown, MEd
Apple, manufacturer of the iPad tablet and other technology hardware, in a July 2016 document titled "iPad in Education Results," available from Apple.com, wrote:
"Students, educators, and institutions are using iPad to inspire creativity and hands-on learning that makes learning more powerful...
Schools report that academic performance - as measured by standardized test scores and other key student outcomes - is improving with iPad use. A number of K-12 schools, districts, and higher education institutions have reported seeing substantial gains when comparing current student test scores with prior-year test scores, pre- and post-test measures, and classrooms without iPad...
From preschool to college, reports from institutions overwhelmingly indicate that students using iPad find that it increases their engagement in learning and makes them feel more motivated to learn. Other positive outcomes include an increase in attendance and a decrease in discipline problems and dropout rates."
July 2016 - Apple
Julius Genachowski, JD, former Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission, said in his Feb. 1, 2012 statement at "Digital Learning Day Town Hall" at the Newseum in Washington, DC, available at fcc.gov:
"Now, it's time for the next stage – or chapter if you will – in education technology: digital textbooks. Digital textbooks are one of the cornerstones of digital learning. When we talk about transitioning to digital textbooks, we’re not just talking about giving students e-readers so they no longer have to carry around backpacks filled with 50 pounds of often out-of-date textbooks. We’re talking about students having interactive learning devices that can offer lessons personalized to their learning style and level, and enable real-time feedback to parents, teachers, or tutors. Imagine a student who has trouble doing his geometry homework; the digital textbook automatically inserts a supplemental lesson...
We've seen digital textbooks adopted in pockets around the country, but adoption is not widespread and too skewed to wealthier areas. Meanwhile, too many students still have textbooks that are 7 to 10 years old. And some students are using history books that don’t even cover 9/11. It's not just the content of textbooks that needs updating it's the concept. We often talk about how technology has changed everything, but static, hardcover textbooks are what I used in school, what my parents used, what their parents used and so on. We spend $7 billion a year on textbooks in this country, but digital textbooks – this massive innovation – remain the exception, not the rule. We can do better. And I envision a society spending less on textbooks, but getting more out of them. We all win if the players in the digital learning ecosystem – including publishers, device manufacturers, platform providers, internet service providers, schools – work together to accelerate the adoption of digital textbooks."
Feb. 1, 2012 - Julius Genachowski, JD
Rupert Murdoch, MA, founder, Chairman, and CEO of News Corporation, said in a May 24, 2011 speech to a meeting of government leaders and internet industry professionals at the eG8 forum in Paris titled "Education: The Last Frontier," available at newscorp.com:
"Everywhere we turn, digital advances are making workers more productive - creating jobs that did not exist only a few years ago, and liberating us from the old tyrannies of time and distance. This is true in every area except one: education... Our schools remain the last holdout from the digital revolution. The person who woke up from a fifty-year nap would find that today's classroom looks almost exactly the same as it did in the Victorian age: a teacher standing in front of a roomful of kids with only a textbook, a blackboard, and a piece of chalk. My friends, what we have here is a colossal failure of imagination... The same digital technologies that transformed every other aspect of modern life can transform education, provide our businesses with the talent they need to thrive, and give hundreds of millions of young people at the fringes of prosperity the opportunity to make their own mark on this global economy.
...[B]ringing digital innovation to the classroom can substantially improve education for children throughout the world - including many now callously written off as hopeless... The key is not just a computer or a tablet or some other device, but also software that will engage students and help teach them concepts and learn to think for themselves.
...There are many different ways to teach children fractions - all of which work for some kids, and don't work for others. Why should we be limited? Why can't we use digital technology to give teachers the choice of all of them?... I know the critics say that if you introduce technology to the classroom, you are simply replacing teachers with computers and blackboards with screens. But the critics are wrong. Technology will never replace the teacher. What we can do is relieve some of the drudgery of teaching. And we can take advantage of the increasingly sophisticated analytics that will help teachers spend more time on the things that make us all more human and more creative... In our own backyards, we have millions of young people whose minds are the key to our future. It is time to insist that our schools use every technology we can to unlock their potential - and treat them as the precious resource they are."
May 24, 2011 - Rupert Murdoch, MA
Tom Vander Ark, MBA, CEO/Partner of Getting Smart and former Executive Director of Education at the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, wrote in his Sep. 11, 2010 article "Post Textbook World" on huffingtonpost.com:
"It's time to put technology in the hands of students--real 24/7/365 learning opportunity. Last year we crossed a threshold where it's cheaper to give kids devices and stop building computer labs and buying textbooks... States and districts will adopt digital textbooks and review online courses... because it is a comfortable step into the digital world... Education is gradually shifting from approving inputs to focusing on student outcomes. And the number and quality of learning opportunities online is exploding... Dominant learning platforms will combine personalized content libraries, social learning features, smart recommendation engines, and aligned services for students, teachers, and schools--sort of Facebook, iTunes Genius, Google apps, and 1-800 support services for students and teachers. It's exciting to look ahead a school year or two, but devices are cheap enough and content is good enough that there's no reason to wait--ditch the textbooks and go online. For teachers, it will unlock new opportunities to meet individual student needs. For students it will extend, engage, and expand learning. And it will beat lugging a backpack of textbooks home."
Sep. 11, 2010 - Tom Vander Ark, MBA
Arne Duncan, former US Secretary of Education, and Julius Genachowski, JD, former Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission, wrote in their Feb. 1, 2012 report "Digital Textbook Playbook," available at fcc.gov:
"Educators are challenged to satisfy the learning needs of today’s diversity of students while meeting the increasingly complex definition of what it means to be educated in the 21st Century... The digital textbooks envisioned will come in an ever-evolving variety of technological and instructional variations to meet diverse educational needs and interests. But they will all have in common digital devices with access to rich, interactive, and personalized content that will encompass the primary tool set in digital learning. No longer will students have to tote 50 pound backpacks with outdated print textbooks. New digital textbooks will be light digital devices – such as a laptop or tablet – that combine Internet connectivity, interactive and personalized content, learning videos and games, and other creative applications to enable collaboration with other students while providing instantaneous feedback to the student and teacher. Digital textbooks can revolutionize teaching and are not simply the digital form of static textbooks."
Feb. 1, 2012 - Arne Duncan
Julius Genachowski, JD
Alison Anderson, MS, Managing Editor of GettingSmart.com blog and K-8 Technology Teacher at Holy Cross Catholic School in Portland, OR, as quoted in Sarah Cargill's Aug. 18, 2012 article "Should Your School Replace Textbooks with E-Readers?" on edweek.org:
"I believe a [tablet] that allows for customization of font size, audio options, dictionary support, Internet research, note taking, and organization of notes can help students read and comprehend content at new levels that were not accessible to them previously. They also give instant access to books that previously had to be ordered, delivered, etc. There is a movement towards digital, up-to-date textbooks, so students can always read relevant information instead of outdated, recycled texts."
Aug. 18, 2012 - Alison Anderson, MS
Joel Klein, JD, former Chancellor of New York City's Department of Education and current CEO of News Corporation's Amplify educational tablet, said in a Mar. 12, 2013 interview with Fox 5 New York, available at myfoxny.com:
"We must use technology to empower teachers and improve the way students learn. At its best, education technology will change the face of education by helping teachers manage the classroom and personalize instruction... If you have a tablet-based approach, you can get a whole lot smarter a whole lot quicker. Tablets come chock full of things that are all about education so the teachers can personalize the learning experience... A kid can get feedback about what skills she's mastered and what skills she hasn't... Tablets are in classrooms across the country now, and the excitement of the teachers and students is something to behold... I think that tablets are helping the teachers. This is a way for a teacher to prepare her lesson and share it with other teachers to get feedback. I think this is an initiative where we don't need to butt heads and we can all join together, work together, and do what's right for teachers and what's right for kids."
Mar. 12, 2013 - Joel Klein, JD
The Institute for Multi-Sensory Education (IMSE), in a Mar. 23, 2017 article for the IMSE Journal titled "Keys to Reading: Digital vs. Print," available from orton.gillingham.com, wrote:
"Norwegian researchers conducted a study that took 72 10th grade students, divided them into two groups and gave each a fiction and a non-fiction piece to read. One group was asked to read both texts on a computer screen, while the other group was given hard copies. The study revealed comprehension was clearly stronger among students who read both texts on paper.
Researchers argue that's because reading on paper is inherently a tactile (even multi-sensory!) experience that allows the brain to create a 'mental map' of the entire text. Unlike material read on an e-reader or computer screen, students can leaf through a book, quickly see its beginning and end. It's that process, researchers say, that is crucial particularly when deep comprehension is needed for long and complex texts...
Moreover, reading a traditional book provides a respite from the sort of interruptions from texts, games and social media that readers can be bombarded with while attempting to read on a tablet or computer screen. While researchers still have much to learn about children's preferences and behaviors, it is possible that books deliver a one-of-a-kind, immersive experience that even the most tech-savvy of generations can enjoy, just as readers have for hundreds of years."
Mar. 23, 2017 - Institute for Multi-Sensory Education (IMSE)
The Paper and Packaging Board (P+PB), a commodity checkoff program overseen by the US Department of Agriculture, in a 2016 report titled "Paper and Productive Learning: The Second Annual Back-to-School Report," available from the P+PB's How Life Unfolds website, wrote:
"Students, along with teachers and parents, intuitively recognize the value of using paper in learning...
Nearly two-thirds of K-12 teachers (64%) feel students comprehend information better and are more engaged (63%) when they read on paper. Close to two-thirds (64%) of K-12 teachers reveal their students even respond better to lessons that are based on paper textbooks. When students hold books in their hands, teachers see more hands raised, and that translates into more participation and engagement...
Moms and dads are more likely to help their children with homework when they are working with paper textbooks, written assignments or hands-on crafts (71%). Again, this isn't a generational preference. Millennial-aged parents, the most proficient with digital technologies, are more likely than other parents (74% vs. 69%) to prefer to help their child with homework on paper as opposed to a computer."
2016 - Paper and Packaging Board (P+PB)
Daniel T. Willingham, PhD, Professor of Psychology at University of Virginia, in an article for the Scientific American website titled "Are Tablet Devices a Good Teaching Tool?" (accessed Jan. 25, 2017), wrote:
"Sometimes this technology [tablet devices] fails, leaving teachers to scramble for a backup plan. Some students do not have access to tablets outside of school. Disadvantaged students may not have Internet connectivity at home. And most problematic, studies show that kids typically understand less and take longer when they are reading from electronic textbooks as compared with printed materials.
This difference in comprehension and reading time is not huge, but it is pretty consistent, which probably explains why most students say they dislike electronic textbooks. Even students experienced in using digital technologies prefer paper."
Jan. 25, 2017 - Daniel T. Willingham, PhD
Justin Hollander, PhD, Assistant Professor of Urban and Environmental Policy and Planning at Tufts University, wrote in his Oct. 9, 2012 op-ed "Long Live Paper" in the New York Times:
"Last week, Education Secretary Arne Duncan declared a war on paper textbooks. 'Over the next few years,' he said in a speech at the National Press Club, 'textbooks should be obsolete.' In their place would come a variety of digital-learning technologies, like e-readers and multimedia Web sites... Secretary Duncan is threatening to light a bonfire to a tried-and-true technology — good old paper — that has been the foundation for one of the great educational systems on the planet. And while e-readers and multimedia may seem appealing, the idea of replacing an effective learning platform with a widely hyped but still unproven one is extremely dangerous.
...[D]igital-reading advocates claim that lightweight e-books benefit students’ backs and save schools money. But the rolling backpack seems to have solved the weight problem, and the astounding costs to outfit every student with an e-reader, provide technical support and pay for regular software updates promise to make the e-textbook a very pricey option.
...With strength and durability that could last thousands of years, paper can preserve information without the troubles we find when our most cherished knowledge is stuck on an unreadable floppy disk or lost deep in the 'cloud.' Paper textbooks can be stored and easily referenced on a shelf. Data are as easy to retrieve from paper as reaching across your desk for a textbook. They are easy to read and don’t require a battery or plug. Though the iPad and e-readers have increasingly better screen clarity, the idea that every time a person reads a book, newspaper or magazine in the near future they will require an energy source is frightening.
The digitization of information offers important benefits, including instant transmission, easy searchability and broad distribution. But before we shred the last of the paper textbooks, let us pause and remember those old streetcars, and how great it would be if we still had them around."
Oct. 9, 2012 - Justin Hollander, PhD
Michael Bloomberg, MBA, former Mayor of New York City, said in a Mar. 1, 2013 radio show on WOR 710 New York, available at dnainfo.com:
"The thing that worries me about tablets instead of textbooks is we think if you give a kid a computer, you solve the problem... When you have computers there, then there’s the pornography and the social media and the distraction of games and that sort of thing... I get in trouble every time I say this, but I would do anything to have better quality teachers, even if it meant bigger class size, even if it meant them standing rather than sitting... That’s in the end what really makes a difference. That human being who looks the student in the eye."
Mar. 1, 2013 - Michael Bloomberg, MBA
Lee Wilson, MBA, Principal Consultant at Headway Strategies, wrote in his Feb. 23, 2012 article "Apple's iPad Textbooks Cost 5x More Than Print," available at The Education Business Blog site:
"Textbooks are a known entity, schools and publishers have developed pretty efficient mechanisms to getting teachers oriented to a new textbook. The iText [Apple's brand of digital textbook] adds a need to train teachers on how to incorporate the devices into their classroom practice. On an annual basis once a teacher has incorporated a textbook into their lesson plans there is very little fine tuning until the book changes. With a digital text the content should update every year requiring tweaks and updates to the teacher's plans. Current content is a huge advantage for the digital text and one of the prime reasons to consider moving in this direction. But from a budget standpoint it comes with a real cost that can't be ignored...
At every level except management the iPad texts are more expensive. The single biggest contributor to the imbalance is the iPad itself, followed by the network... We are likely to hear lots of bleating about engagement and how much the kids love to work with these devices. To which educators should respond with 'great - where is the objective data on improved outcomes?' As a long term advocate of ed-tech I hope the data supports the thesis, but until we see the proof, claims along these lines ought to be regarded as aspirational marketing...
The next time some ignorant bloviator refers to 'outrageously priced textbooks' remind them that at six cents per day a textbook is about as efficient as you are going to get for high quality, well designed, instructionally sound, standards aligned, and globally permissioned materials."
Feb. 23, 2012 - Lee Wilson, MBA
Esther Wojcicki, MA, Teacher at Palo Alto High School and Vice Chair of the Creative Commons board of directors, wrote in her Summer 2010 article "E-Textbooks to iPads: Do Teenagers Use Them?" at the Nieman Foundation's website:
"Students hold strong and passionate opinions about e-textbooks... While a majority dislikes e-textbooks, about 20 percent believe that they are the future - and should be. Perhaps I should have predicted such a reaction given that early in the school year many of these students had written a fiery editorial about e-textbooks in their social studies classes. In part it read, '… online textbooks hinder study habits and force the use of computers. … and are detrimental to learning and inconvenient.' The editorial concluded with these words: 'If the school wishes to cultivate the use of e-books, it should at the very least offer students the option to continue using the old, hardcover books.' At one point, we did a straw poll with the option of a free Kindle with all their books loaded on it or their old textbooks. The result: 100 percent voted for their heavy, old textbooks...
Students were adamant that it was 'much easier to learn' from a textbook. (Several students did say that they don’t like carrying heavy books.) With hardcover books, they told me, they can highlight sections and flip through and scan pages more easily; reviewing the highlighted pages helps them remember facts. Portability also was an important factor: With a textbook they could study in random places like at after-school games or practices or they could take it with them to a friend’s house, and no one would ever want to steal it, unlike a Kindle. They said that digital devices in general were hard on the eyes, hard to read outdoors, required dealing with a battery, and are fragile... [S]tudents really find it easier to learn from a textbook."
Summer 2010 - Esther Wojcicki, MA
Tommy Toy, MBA, Management Consultant and Business Strategist at PBT Consulting, wrote in his Aug. 22, 2012 article "Teaching with Tablets: Adoption of Tablets by K-12 and College Students, and Their Long Term Effects" on Tommy Toy's blog:
"[N]ot all socio-economic households and schools can afford a tablet, mobile apps, and access to WiFi for their school-aged children. For this reason, I am afraid that many families and classrooms will be left behind as tablet technology becomes mainstream. Only higher income households and schools scoring high on standardized tests will be able to afford these new technologies.
My other concerns are privacy issues and proper supervision of students as they gain access to the Internet. Teacher and parental supervision are paramount for all age groups to insure that they are not being exposed to improper online content. Teachers and parents must make sure that tablets are being used responsibly by their children and students, and that these devices are being used for educational activities, not just for playing games and online entertainment. We won't know the affect tablets and computers will have on the quality of education. Goals must be established and educators must make sure that tablets and other mobile teaching devices are producing higher test scores and grades."
Aug. 22, 2012 - Tommy Toy, MBA
Bill Gates, Co-Chair of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, said in a June 25, 2012 interview with the Chronicle of Higher Education and available on the Chronicle of Higher Education website:
"Just giving people devices has a really terrible track record. You really have to change the curriculum and the teacher and those things. And it's never going to work on a device where you don't have keyboard-type input. Students aren't there just to read things. They're actually supposed to be able to write and communicate... The device is not the key limiting factor at this point... I don't see that as the key thing right now."
June 25, 2012 - Bill Gates