Footnotes & Sources

The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following footnotes (directly referenced) and sources (used for general research and not directly referenced):
  1. C. Claiborne Ray, "The Weight of Memory,", Oct. 24, 2011

  2. Associated Press, "Cell Phone Theft on the Rise,", Oct. 21, 2012

  3. Daniel Goleman and Gregory Norris, "How Green Is My iPad?,", Apr. 4, 2010

  4. Janet Maragioglio, "iPads Boost Math Scores, Benefit Education,", Jan. 31, 2012

  5. Mary Elizabeth Dallas, "Overloaded Backpacks Can Injure Kids: Experts,", Aug. 26, 2012

  6. Federal Communications Commission, "Digital Textbook Playbook," (2.55 MB), Feb. 1, 2012

  7. Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), "National PBS Survey Finds Teachers Want More Access to Classroom Tech,", Jan. 23, 2012

  8. Emily Price, "How Much Storage Does Your Tablet Need?,", Mar. 3, 2012

  9. Electronista, "Digital Textbooks May Save Schools $250 Per Student Per Year,", Mar. 30, 2012

  10. Mikael Ricknas, "Average Tablet Price Drops to $386, Says IMS Research,”, June 8, 2012

  11. Patrick Thibodeau, "Tablet Sales to Soar as Prices Drop Through 2015, Says Gartner,”, Mar. 30, 2011

  12. Thomas Adams, "Textbook Weight in California: Data and Analysis," California Department of Education website, Apr. 14, 2004

  13. US Bureau of Labor Statistics, "Occupational Outlook Handbook," (accessed Nov. 9, 2012)

  14. Del Williams, "How Much Is Out-of-Control Printing Costing Your School?," (accessed Aug. 1, 2012)

  15. Ben Johnson, "Paper and Pencil Curriculum: How Much Do You Rely on It?,", Feb. 23, 2011

  16. Tom Mendelsohn, "Ten Great Free Education Apps for the iPad," The Independent, Jan. 30, 2012

  17. LearnStuff, "Graduating with Technology,", Aug. 17, 2012

  18. Kathryn Zickuhr, "Younger Americans' Reading and Library Habits,", Oct. 23, 2012

  19. David Talbot, "Given Tablets But No Teachers, Ethiopian Kids Teach Themselves,", Oct. 29, 2012

  20. New York Daily News, "iStrain: Tablets and iPads Can Cause Eye Problems,", Mar. 14, 2012

  21. I-Mei Lin, "Psychophysiological Patterns During Cell Phone Text Messaging: A Preliminary Study," Applied Psychophysiological Biofeedback, Feb. 6, 2009

  22. Dean Fishman, "Neck Pain from Texting," The Text Neck Institute website, Nov. 2, 2010

  23. Lee Wilson, "Apple's iPad Textbooks Cost 5x More Than Print,", Feb. 23, 2012

  24. Lesley Lanir, "Digital Information Overload Overwhelms and Distracts Students,", Nov. 4, 2012

  25. Urs Gasser and John Palfrey, "Mastering Multitasking,", Mar. 2009

  26. Kate Garland, "Computer- vs. Paper-based Tasks: Are They Equivalent?," Ergonomics, Sep. 2008

  27. Lorien Crow, "Are E-Books Bad for Your Memory?,”, Mar. 15, 2012

  28. Nicholas Carr, "Author Nicholas Carr: The Web Shatters Focus, Rewires Brains,", May 24, 2010

  29. FindtheBest, "What Is the Average Battery Life of a Tablet Computer?,” (accessed Aug. 6, 2012)

  30. Associated Press, "Cell Phone Theft on the Rise,", Oct. 21, 2012

  31. Mike Schmoker, Focus: Elevating the Essentials to Radically Improve Student Learning, 2011

  32. Laura Hazard Owen, "What Apple Is Wading Into: A Snapshot of the K-12 Textbook Business,”, Jan. 21, 2012

  33. Digital Book World, "Publishers’ eBook Production Statistics,", Aug. 21, 2012

  34. Book Industry Study Group and the Association of American Publishers, "BookStats 2012,", July 18, 2012

  35. Dian Schaffhauser, "The Price Is Right?," Campus Technology website, Apr. 1, 2012

  36. Christopher F. Schuetze, "Textbooks Finally Take a Big Leap to Digital,", Nov. 23, 2011

  37. Aaron Smith, "Smartphone Adoption and Usage," (1.7 MB), July 11, 2011

  38. The New Media Consortium, "The 2012 Horizon Report,", 2012

  39. California State Board of Education, "Textbook Weight Standards: Adoption of Proposed Title 5 Regulations, Section 9517.2,", July 2007

  40. AVG, "The AVG Digital Diaries Report – How Has Technology Changed Childhood?,", Apr. 2012

  41. Gautham Nagesh, "Pew: Minorities Continue to Lead Twitter Adoption,", June 1, 2011

  42. Will Oremus, "New Digital Divide: Whites Less Likely to Own Smartphones,", Aug. 7, 2012

  43. Jane Weaver, "Teens Tune Out TV, Log On Instead,", July 24, 2012

  44. Rob Reynolds, "Digital Textbooks Reaching the Tipping Point in US Higher Education," Xplana Learning website, Mar. 2011

  45. Government Accountability Office, "College Textbooks: Enhanced Offerings Appear to Drive Recent Price Increases,", July 2005

  46. Nicole Allen, "New Laws, Free Books and Textbook Rentals Could Help Curb Rising Costs This Fall,", Aug. 26, 2010

  47. Geoffrey Fletcher, Dian Schaffhauser, and Douglas Levin, "Out of Print: Reimagining the K-12 Textbook in a Digital Age," State Educational Technology Directors Association website, 2012

  48. Association of American Publishers, "School Size and Weight Policy," (accessed Feb. 22, 2013)

  49. LA Times, "L.A. Unified Halts Contract for iPads,", Aug. 25, 2014

  50. Thomas Himes, "Los Angeles Unified's iPad Contract to be Re-Bid among Favoritism Concerns,", Aug. 26, 2014

  51. John Koetsier, "L.A. Unified to Give Every Student an iPad in Deal Worth 'Hundreds of Millions,'", June 19, 2013

  52. Pam A. Mueller and Daniel M. Oppenheimer, "The Pen Is Mightier Than the Keyboard: Advantages of Longhand over Laptop Note Taking," Psychological Science, May 22, 2014


California Department of Education, "Textbook Weight in California: Analysis and Recommendations,", May 2004

James Doubek and NPR Staff, "Attention, Students: Put Your Laptops Away,", Apr. 17, 2016

K-12 High Speed Network, "Technology News,", Mar. 9, 2011

Sarah Kessler, "6 Companies Aiming to Digitize the Textbook Industry,", May 10, 2011

Douglas Macmillan, "Tech Execs Meet in DC to Plan 5-Year Transition to Digital Textbooks,", Mar. 29, 2012

Danielle Nadler, "Tablets or Textbooks: Schools Sit at Critical Crossroads,", Nov. 10, 2011

Will Oremus, "New Digital Divide: Whites Less Likely to Own Smartphones,", Aug. 7, 2012

Margaret Reardon, "Which Tablet Is Best for Textbooks?,", Nov. 22, 2011

Margaret Rock, "The Future of Education: Tablets vs. Textbooks,", Apr. 4, 2011